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Let's say we start with the Big Bang. Every bit of matter started from this event. Therefore, given EVERY variable (every particle, movements of particles, weights, times, etc) and an INFINITE amount of time and computing power, would it be possible to predict the formation of all planets. Would it also be possible to prove that Earth would have been "created" (not religious intentions here) or that the Sun will explode in several million years?

This question may be out of the scope of Astronomy.SE, but it was the most relevant SE site I could think of.

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At least in some interpretations quantum mechanics plays merry havoc with predetermination, and then chaos amplifies the lack of knowledge until it includes all the details of the system not withstanding that you can still make statistical predictions. –  dmckee Mar 23 '12 at 5:03

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In order to know with certainty where every particle was going to be you would need to know its mass, velocity and state very accurately - as any rounding errors or uncertainty will be magnified over the timespans involved.

Unfortunately it is impossible to know to 100% precision where anything is, so we are already at strike 1.

If you could somehow hold all this information, you would need at least the size of the universe to store it (plus another couple of universes to manage and read that information)

Basically the answer is a very big no - as you cannot have the prerequisites you defined in the question.

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What if we "remove" the human aspect from the equation. Let's say we have several universes and an infinite amount of computing power for all this data. And say you do know the mass, velocity and position of every particle (forget the uncertainty principle). Would/could this be possible? –  MaxMackie Mar 23 '12 at 15:51
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forget the uncertainty principle - good luck with that. Once you drop that from the picture, you're not talking about this Universe anymore, and any conclusions you reach are science-fiction in the purest sense of the expression. –  Florin Andrei Mar 23 '12 at 18:48
    
I disagree! All fiction, no science. –  Andrew Mar 24 '12 at 5:16

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