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Who first determined the structure of water (two hydrogen atoms stuck to an oxygen atom at approx 105 degrees), and, more importantly, how was this done?

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Lavoisier isolated, or at least named - (bit of a row with Cavendish) Hydrogen and Oxygen and was the first to make water from H2 and O2. Not sure who determined the bond angle but presumably it had to wait for the invention of x-ray crystalography in the early 20C

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