CIE defined color matching functions (CMF) for XYZ and thus RGB colors. But of course, each camera has its own color sensitivities for visible spectrum. Is there any way to estimate this function (or a series of values by wavelengths) for a given camera?
closed as off topic by Qmechanic♦, Manishearth♦, Sklivvz♦ Dec 29 '12 at 15:16
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Take image of 18% Kodak grey card - or just a piece of normal white office paper. Measure relative signal in red/green/blue channels.
In reality you would need a monochromator and lightsource to measure the full spectral resposnse but since there is nothing you can do to correct the shape of the RGB filters or their overlap there isn't much point.
If you know the spectral response of the camera in detail AND the spectra of the light source + reflectivity object you could calculate a correction - but if you knew all that you wouldn't need a colour camera.