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Is putting a balloon that is charged up against a wall and having it stick polarization AND charging by temporary induction, or just polarization?

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It's just polarization. Inductive charging requires at least three objects two of which must be conductive. The two conductive objects can be charged by induction by first inducing a difference in charge between them with the third object. This is only possible if charges can flow between the two conductive objects. Then the conductive path between those objects is broken. Finally, the third field inducing object can be removed. Now the two conductive objects will have different charges on them and if brought together could spark.

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