What is the name of the force exerted on a body that doesn't move?
Pretty much every known kind of force is often exerted on a body that "doesn't move" (relative to the ground) -- gravitational force from the Earth and the Moon and the Sun, tidal force, magnetic force, electric force, spring force, tension, compression, etc.
Static friction is a kind of force that is always exerted on a body that doesn't move.
How do I measure or calculate the force exerted on a body that doesn't move?
One of many ways to measure how much of one kind of force from some source is applied to a body is to assume ∑F = ma , and then measure the force and the acceleration of an object, and multiply them together to get the net force.
Alas, that only works when all the other forces are carefully balanced so they cancel out, so the net force is entirely due to the one source we are interested in.
When you push against a brick wall, all the other forces on you are not cancelled out.
A more practical way to measure the force of a hand against a brick wall is to put a spring scale between them, which will measure the force your hand exerts against the wall, and also the (equal and opposite) force the wall exerts on your hand.
When I'm in a swimming pool and push against a wall, I accelerate -- the sum of the forces on me is not zero, even though (as always) the force of my hand on the wall is equal and opposite to the force the wall exerts on my hand.
When I stand on the ground and push against a brick wall, I am stationary -- the vector sum of the sideways push of the wall on my hands, the vertical force of gravity on my body, and the diagonal force of the ground on my feet, all balance to zero net force.