I am looking for a book explaining physics from, say, Galileo and Newton till now; the book should be written using some math, similarly to my physics books when I was at the university (Halliday Resnik). I am searching a book that take care of explaining the true "evolution" of reasoning, discoveries, experiment to prove or disprove something.
I do not like a book that gives definitions without explaining what had happened. I also like to find, on that book, explanations on how actual measurements are taken (how can we measure the speed of light, the mass of celestial bodies, the attributes of electron, and how were the measurements taken in the past - how was possible to measure the speed of light in 1700-1800?).
I am not very interested in recent theories like strings, branes.... so it is OK if these are not discussed.
I like to find a lot of discussions on concept that are related, like for instance the implications on space dimensionalities, ether non-existence, strange facts, missing explanations.