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Operationally, we can only know about the results of experiments and observations. From them, we can conclude our world is one which is complex enough to allow for computers. After all, we're using computers right now. Our universe has the property of Turing completeness, meaning we can embed any possible computer program on it subject to space, time and energy requirements. Unfortunately, any theory which is Turing complete can always be emulated on any other theory which is also Turing complete. What consequence does this have upon our ability to deduce the 'ultimate' theory of everything?

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I'm taking the position that this is better suited for Philosophy.SE of TheoreticalCompSci.SE as there seems to be no physics here at all. –  dmckee Sep 27 '11 at 16:19
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closed as off topic by dmckee Sep 27 '11 at 16:19

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Three simple words, devoid of pretentious philosophical mumbo jumbo: no we can't.

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It is conceivable that a theory will eventually be developed that allows one to predict phenomena in our universe at all scales of matter, energy, and time. That said, in my opinion there's no reason to expect that this "theory of everything" will answer address the nature of the underlying machinery that carries out computations in the physical world. Just as one can build a (Turing Universal) computer out of ropes and pulleys, or a clock with water, a theory that addresses the behavior of a system can often and fruitfully be divorced from mechanism.

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