Using magnetic forces, I want to separate solids from liquids in a solution as a centrifuge would do. Is there a way to hit a volume of liquid and get it to separate liquids and solids with heavy pulses of magnetic waves?
For magnetism to work for seperation, the primary thing needed is ht e magnetic properties be different for the constituents i.e either of them should be a combination of paramagnetic, diamagnetic or ferromagnetic material, which may vary in magnitude.
Now, paramagnetism and diamagnetism are awfully weak to work in commercial situation. A trivia: Human body is diamagnetic and can be magnetically levitated by enormous magnetic field, a frog has been levitated by using 5-6 T.
So, the only viable situation arises with ferromagnetic material, which is used presently as such for separation of iron ore.
So coming back to your problem, the liquid and solid you want to separate needs to be having different magnetic property and probably with sufficient string magnetic field, you can separate out them.
As a matter of fact, in centrifuge separation, the inertial mass is used for separation, which makes up the centrifugal force.