You're assuming that nuclei with exactly a magic number of neutrons are more stable than all their non-magic neighbors in the chart of nuclides, but there's no reason to think that.
If a nucleus has a magic number of neutrons, that means one shell is completely full, and the next shell is empty. Therefore the next neutron you add (going to magic+1) will have significantly greater single-particle energy, so that nucleus should be less stable than the magic one. This is born out by both of your examples for the well-known magic number 126:
- Po-211 (N = 126+1): 0.5 seconds
- Ra-215 (N = 126+1): 1.5 milliseconds
However, if you remove one neutron, then nothing changes about the other (magic−1) neutrons; they are still in the same shells as in the magic case. No extra stability is caused by having a completely full shell as opposed to an almost full one. (In this respect, the word "magic" is misleading.)
Here's another way to think of it: In alpha decay (which is the main decay branch for all of your examples), two neutrons are removed from the nucleus. It will always be the two most energetic neutrons that are removed (those in the highest shells). In a magic nucleus, the lower shell is completely full, so two neutrons are removed from that lower shell. In a magic+1 nucleus, there is a lone neutron in the upper shell, so when two neutrons are removed, one comes from the upper shell and one from the lower shell. Since one comes from the upper shell, more energy is released in the alpha decay and in general the half-life will be shorter.
However, in a magic−1 nucleus, there are no neutrons in the upper shell, so both neutrons come from the lower shell. This is the same situation as the magic case, so there's no reason to expect the decay energies or half-lives to be drastically different. (Of course they won't be exactly the same, but the differences come from other, more subtle effects.)
BTW, 152 is not a "canonical" or "universal" magic number. It shows up on the plot you have there of some specific elements, but if you look at other elements, the gap between the shells occurs at a different place. 126 is a universal magic number, but at 152 the situation is more complicated because changing the neutron/proton ratio also shifts the shells relative to each other. This is why the thing I said about magic+1 always being less stable than magic doesn't hold for one of those. Nuclear structure is really complicated.