Today I had a discussion with a colleague who teaches electricity and magnetism to 2nd year undergraduate physics students. He is seeking the best way to explain how is the emf generated inside a battery with a minimal appeal to physics beyond classical. We have lamented that some textbooks refer to "non-electromagnetic chemical forces" since all of chemistry is essentially electrostatics+quantum mechanics.
Our proposal is to draw the students' attention to the existence of atoms which can not be explained by classical mechanics + classical electromagnetism. In the same vein the forces on charge carriers in galvanic cells are electromagnetic but the response is not classical. Thus a battery "amplifies" non-classicality to the level macroscopic electricity. It is not that forces are non electrostatic but the systems response is not classical. Can you recommend textbooks or online sources that use/expand this idea?
(the main tag for this question should be "teaching" but I'm too much of a rookie here to create one)