The basics about the direction of force and field comes from the "Fleming's Left Hand Rule" and the "Maxwell's Corkscrew Rule". In addition to these the Lorentz force law, i.e. F=q[E+(vxB)] gives the force on a charge moving through a magnetic and electric field [Neglect E if electric field is absent.] The Biot- Savart Law gives the relation between current and magnetic field.
The Ampere's Circuital Law also plays a pivotal role in finding out magnetic field due to current through an enclosed area.
Coming to electric field due to magnetism[commonly called, Electromagnetic Induction], there exists the Lenz's Law. The concepts of motional emf and Eddy currents are essential for understanding the topic.