"Does ionization lead to fluorescence?", you ask.
However, please note that the ionization itself do not mean fluorescence - that comes after. My post is about what happens to the atom after an electron has been ejected.
Yes indeed! Lets consider another example than your light bulb one. When radiation is very high-energy, it is sometimes referred to as "ionizing radiation". Gamma rays and X-rays are ionizing. This can be, and has been, exploited to make hand-held instruments for elemental determination. The technique I am talking of is called "X-ray fluorescence".
The principle for this instrument is quite simple. X-rays are generated within the instrument itself. These X-rays are then directed out of the "gun", and aimed at whatever material we wish to analyze. These X-rays hit the speciment, and then several things happen.
Remember that X-rays have very high energy. Also remember that the valence electrons of an atom are those easiest to remove. The closer we come to the nucleus, the more energy is needed to remove electrons. The X-rays in these guns are high enough in energy to remove the inner-most electrons of atoms; the radiation hits one of those electrons, and they are simple removed from the atom. Here comes the interesting part. As the electron is gone, the atom is left with an electron vacancy. This is quite unstable, and another electron fills up the vacancy. Usually the gap-filling electron comes from the adjacent energy level, or the next one.
When this electron falls down to fill the vacancy, energy is sent out. This is referred to as fluorescence. The energy of the fluorescence depends on the energy difference between the electron vacancy and the energy level (and orbital) of the gap-filling electron. Since the energy differences between energy levels and orbitals are characteristic for each element in the periodic table, measuring the emitted light gives us information about the elemental composition in whatever the X-ray gun was aiming at. These guns are often used by toy stores to analyse imported toys to make sure there are no harmful elements present.
To sum up, ionizing an atom leads to fluorescence, and this has many applications. I mentioned just one in this post, but you can probably read about others online. I know this answer maybe was a little off-topic, but I just wanted to add some context to a simple "yes, it does" answer.