# Did Maxwell invent the math to describe the ideas of electromagnetism?

Did he invent surface and line integrals, or did they already exist when he formulated his equations. If they did, already exist, how did they come about in pure math?

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Maxwell was not solely responsible for vector calculus, the formalism was developed before his treatise by Gibbs and Heaviside, as well as others. –  JamalS Apr 26 at 21:42
Also, if you read his treatise, most of the modern notation is absent. No $\nabla \times \vec{E}$ type stuff, so it's a lot more verbose. –  webb Apr 26 at 22:26
Wasn't Ampère cast Farady's results in mathematical form. Poisson was a real mathematical physicist, too. –  Geremia Apr 28 at 2:54