The real issue here is obscured by inane terminology and bad thinking.
The real issue is, what sort of "locally deterministic theory" could reproduce the experimentally successful predictions of quantum mechanics? Locality here means, not just that causal influences have to pass through space (rather than acting instantly at a distance), but that they don't go faster than light.
The key discovery of John Bell, immortalized in his theorem, is that there are experiments in which quantum mechanics predicts that there are correlations of a sort which cannot be produced by a locally deterministic theory.
The basic paradigm is that two particles are produced at a point, and move apart in opposite directions towards two rotatable filters. There are particle detectors on the far side of both filters. The probability that the particle will get through the filter depends on the filter's angle of orientation. The orientation of the filter is set while the particles are in flight, when they are too far apart for a light-speed influence to connect them. Yet whether they get through the filters or not, is highly correlated in a way that can't be produced by a locally deterministic theory with a light-speed limit. For more, see "Bell's theorem".
Bell's theorem is about probabilities. It is not literally impossible for a locally deterministic physics to reproduce the right results, but it would have to be an endless long-running coincidence, as if cosmic rays kept arriving from the other side of the universe in order to block the particles from getting through with the required frequency.
The point is that the filter orientations can be set according to any rule, the probabilities of getting through at the different ends are both highly correlated with each other and depend on what the orientations actually are, and the filter orientations can be "chosen" in such a way that no lightspeed causal influence can connect them. So the hypothetical causal influence that determines whether the particles get through, would have to "know" what the orientations were in advance. And since the orientations could be chosen e.g. according to the digits of pi, or the letters of "Moby Dick", or the behaviors of rats in a maze, you would have to suppose that this sequence of information was programmed into the outside causal influence (like the cosmic rays) in advance.
That is the idea that is "regarded as a joke". But here is where the inane terminology and the bad thinking enter to confuse the issue.
Bell posed his scenario in terms of experimenters choosing the filter orientations. He said a loophole might exist, if the experimenters' own choices are not free, and he called this "superdeterminism", as if ordinary determinism was just about experiments and not also the people who make them.
In any case, this offers no improvement in terms of probability. Before, we had cosmic rays with "Moby Dick" pre-programmed into them. Here, we have (presumably) mysterious influences which would prevent experimenters from conducting the "Moby Dick" version of the experiment. It's just as silly, and in any case, Bell-type experiments have now been done many times, so the improbable thing has come to pass. (It would be interesting to have a lower bound on just how improbable the outcomes of all the world's EPR experiments would be by now, assuming local determinism.)
So, although there actually is a prejudice against determinism among many people brought up on quantum mechanics, and although many people have a philosophical prejudice in favor of free will, neither of those really has anything to do with the issue here. The core issue is the fact that locally deterministic theories can only produce Bell correlations by coincidence, and that has a probability approaching zero as the experiments keep getting repeated and the predictions confirmed. If you want determinism in subquantum physics, you need nonlocality (Bohmian mechanics), causality backwards in time (various "interpretations"), perhaps some form of emergent space (with an underlying causal network that is nonlocal)...
This paper is a more accurate and scholarly expression, using a contemporary form of causal analysis, of what I am trying to say. When I say it needs cosmic rays pre-programmed with Moby Dick... that's an example of what they call "fine-tuning". The local causal influences responsible for producing nonlocal Bell correlations would have to be tuned in advance to produce the required effects.