My understanding of an electrical current is that it is the flow of electrons through a material. The only magnitude I can fathom for this process is the number of electrons which are flowing.
I know ohms law, and how some of the basic components of a circuit work (resistors and capacitors, specifically). If there is a circuit attached to a 120V power source, the voltage at the beginning of the circuit will be 120V, and at the end of it will be 0V. When the current experiences resistance, voltage is lost, so more current has to be supplied to the circuit so that exactly all of the voltage is lost by the end of the circuit.
My question is: what is happening when voltage is lost? When current is increased? When learning about capacitors in university, I understood that voltage is built up on each plate by electrons flowing in and spreading out across the surface of the plate. But if voltage is the number of electrons in a circuit, what is current? And if all voltage is dropped at the end of a circuit, where do the electrons go? I figured that since electrons won't build up ad infinitum throughout the circuit (obviously since everything would build up an increasingly negative charge), the magnitude of the current must be the number of the electrons. But then what is voltage? What is lost? How should I interpret the stored charge on a capacitor?