If I have a force, say 24 kg/cm what would that equate to at 2cm? I would like to know the formulae for calculating this. For example. If a motor can hold an object of 24kg at 1cm from its pivot point, what is it cable of holding at 5cm? And how is it calculated?
The units you mean are probably kg*cm (sometimes written kg.cm in robotics). Your original specification of 24 kgcm is a torque and not a force. The difference in practice is that, as the units imply, your resulting force at a point a distance from the "pivot point" decreases by the distance. So 24 kg*cm means that it can hold 24 kg at 1 cm or 12 kg at 2 cm etc.
Notice that strictly speaking kg is not a standard unit of force in physics since the force of gravity on a kilogram varies. In robotics, this seems to be the standard unit of servo torque though.